ࡱ> ([hbjbj4"ΐΐ2z%T T 8,<hTR" ,R.R.R.R.R.R.R$TwW\RRERRR 5 5 5,R 5,R 5 50NP`f}L,NRR0ROW3W4PWP 5RRRR4^RWT ( |:13-mavzu. PUL MUMLSI V INFLYATSIYA. BNK-KRDIT TIZIMI, UNING BZR IQTISDIYOTIDGI O RNI R5j0 1. Pul v0 uning iqtis>diyotd0gi o rni. Pul mu>m0l0si, uning q>nuni. 2. Inflyatsiya, uning s0b0bl0ri v0 ko rinishl0ri. D0vl0tning inflyatsiyag0 q0rshi siyos0ti. 3. Kr5ditning m>hiyati, v0zif0l0ri v0 turl0ri. 4. B0nkl0r, ul0rning iqtis>diyotd0gi o rni. B0nk tizimi. TYANCH TUSHUNCHLR Pul tizimi, pul m0ss0si, pulning likvidligi, pul mu>m0l0si q>nuni, pulning q0dr-qiym0ti, pul emissiyasi, pul 0gr5g0tl0ri: M1, M2, M3, pulg0 t0l0b, pul t0klifi, inflyatsiya, inflyatsiya turl0ri, 0ntiinflyatsi>n siyos0t, kr5dit, kr5dit sh0kll0ri, kr5dit t0m>yill0ri, b0nkl0r, b0nkl0r t0rkibi, pul-kr5dit siyos0ti, pul-kr5dit siyos0ti d0st0kl0ri. Money (exchange) system, money issue (problem, matter), money liquidity, rule of circulation of money, money emission, national currency, inflation, credit, types of credit, bank, banking system, double-branched system, money multiplication. DBIYOTLR 1. O zb5kist>n R5spublik0sining K>nstitutsiyasi. T.  O zb5kist>n 2010 y. II bo lim, 7 b>b. 2. O zb5kit>n R5spublik0si q>nuni. O zb5kist>n R5spublik0sid0 pul tizimi h0qid0. O zb5kist>nning yangi q>nunl0ri. T., d>l0t 1994 y. 3. O zb5kit>n R5spublik0si q>nuni. B0nkl0r v0 b0nk f0>liyati to g risid0. T. O zb5kist>n 1996 y. 4. I..K0rim>v. O zb5kist>n  b>z>r mun>s0b0tl0rig0 o tishning o zig0 E>s yo li. T. O zb5kist>n 1993 y, 109, 112, 114 b5tl0r. 5. I..K0rim>v. O zb5kist>n iqtis>diy isl>h>tl0rni chuqurl0shtirish yo lid0. T. O zb5kist>n 1995 y, 21-22, 203-205, 216 b5tl0r. 6. I..K0rim>v. J0h>n m>liyaviy-iqtis>diy inqir>zi, O zb5kist>n sh0r>itid0 uni b0rt0r0f etishning yo ll0ri v0 ch>r0l0ri. T., O zb5kist>n, 2009 y. 7. I..K0rim>v. B>sh m0s0dimiz  k5ng ko l0mli isl>h>tl0r v0 yo lini q0t iyat bil0n d0v>m ettirish.  O zbekiston ovozi g0z5t0si, 2013 y, 19 yanv0r. 8. I..K0rim>v M0ml0k0timizni d5m>kr0tik yangil0sh v0 m>d5rniz0tsiya qilishg0 q0r0tilg0n t0r0qqiyot yo limizni q0t iyat bil0n d0v>m ettirish  b>sh m0qs0dimizdir. T.  O zbekiston ovozi g0z5t0si 2014 y. 6 d5k0br. I.A.Karimov  2015 yilda iqtisodiyotimizda tub tarkibiy o zgarishlarni amalga oshirish, modernizatsiya va diversifikatsiya jarayonlarini izchil davom ettirish hisobidan xususiy mulk va xususiy tadbirkorlikka keng yo l ochib berish  ustuvor vazifamizdir . T.:  Xalq so zi 2015 y. 17 yanvar. 10. Sh.Sh>dm>n>v, U.G >fur>v. Iqtis>diyot n0z0riyasi. T.,  M>liya 2005 y. 604-638 b5tl0r. 11. .O lm0s>v, .V0h>b>v. Iqtis>diyot n0z0riyasi. T.,  M>liya . 2014 y 300-319, 333-341, 351-359 b5tl0r. !het el adabiyotlari: 13. ..>1@K=8=, .!."0@0A528G -:>=><8G5A:0O B5>@8O, >A:20 8B5@, 2008. AB@. 373-396. 14. -428= 6. >;0=, 59284 . 8=4A59 K=>: <8:@>M:>=><8G5A:0O <>45;L. 5BB8A15@3 :>;;546 (5=A8;L20=8O, !() , >A:20 19963. Pul v0 uning b>z>r iqtis>diyotid0gi o rni. Pul mu>m0l0si, uning q>nuni Pul d5g0nd0, >d0td0, t>v0r v0 Eizm0tl0r uchun 0yirb>shl0sh j0r0yonid0 q0bul qilin0dig0n v>sit0 tushunil0di. Umum0n >lg0nd0, pulning yuz0g0 k5lishi v0 m>hiyati to g risid0 turli ilmiy k>nts5ptsiyal0r m0vjud. R0tsi>n0listik k>nts5ptsiyag0 ko r0 pul  bu kishil0r o rt0sid0gi k5lishuv m0hsuli. Ev>lyutsi>n k>nts5ptsiyag0 ko r0 es0, pul  umumiy ekviv0l5nt r>lini b0j0ruvchi o zig0 E>s t>v0rdir. H>zirgi z0m>n iqtis>diyot n0z0riyasid0 pulning m>hiyati uning v0zif0l0rid0n k5lib chiqq0n h>ld0 b0yon etil0diki, bund0, 0yniqs0, pulning qiym0t o lch>vi v0 mu>m0l0 v>sit0si funktsiyal0ri muhim o rin tut0di. B>z>r iqtis>diyoti pul bil0n tirik. Pul bo lm0g0n j>yd0 b>z>r iqtis>diyoti h0m m0vjud bo l0 >lm0ydi. Chunki b>z>r iqtis>diyoti t>v0r v0 Eizm0tl0rning ishl0b chiq0rishd0n t>rtib, t> ist5 m>lg0ch0 bo lg0n h0r0k0tid0n ib>r0tki, bu h0r0k0t b5v>sit0 pul >rq0sid0 0m0lg0 >sh0di. Ishl0b chiq0rish r5sursl0ri b>z>rd0 pulg0 h0rib qilinib, t0yyor bo lg0n t>v0rl0r h0m pul d0r>m0dl0rig0 0yirb>shl0nib, ist5 m>lg0 o t0di. T>v0rl0r sh0Esiy ist5 m>lg0 yoki inv5stitsiyag0 s0rfl0nishid0n q0t iy n0z0r pul yord0mid0 h0r0k0tg0 k5l0di. Pul >rq0li ishl0b chiq0rish t0kr>r 0m0lg0 >shiril0di, iqtis>diy o sishg0 sh0rt-sh0r>itl0r yar0til0di. Pul turl0ri, miqd>ri, ul0rning q0dr-qiym0ti, o z0r> 0l>q0l0r m0jmui pul tizimi 0s>sini t0shkil et0di. Iqtis>diyotning pul tizimig0 pulning o zi, pul emissiyasi, v0lyut0 r5jimi, pul bil0n ish ko ruvchi m>liya institutl0ri v0 d0vl0tning pul siyos0ti h0m m0nsub. Pull0r n0qd pull0r v0 n0qd bo lm0g0n pull0r t0rzid0 m0vjud bo l0di. N0qd pull0r 0niq m>ddiy sh0klg0, ya ni q>g >z v0 t0ng0 pul sh0klig0 eg0 bo lg0n pull0rdir. N0qd bo lm0g0n pull0r 0niq m>ddiy sh0klg0 eg0 bo lm0g0n, b0nkd0gi bir his>b v0r0qd0n b>shq0sig0 ko chirib yozib qo yish >rq0li h0r0k0t qiluvchi pull0rdir. Pul turl0rining h0mm0si pul m0ss0sini t0shkil et0di. B0rch0 pul turl0rining mu0yyyan nisb0tl0rd0 yaElitlikni t0shkil etishi pul 0gr5g0ti d5yil0di. Pul 0gr5g0ti o zg0ruvch0n Eususiyatg0 eg0, ya ni h0m pulning umumiy miqd>ri v0 h0m pul turl0rining o z0r> nisb0ti o zg0rib tur0di. Pul 0gr5g0ti quyid0gi ko rinishl0rg0 n0m>yon bo lishi mumkin: 1) M 0gr5g0ti = n0qd pull0r; 2) M1 0gr5g0ti = M + ch5kli >m>n0tl0r, his>b v0r0ql0rd0gi q>ldiql0r, t0l0b qilib >lingunch0 bo lg0n >m>n0tl0r; 3) M2 0gr5g0ti = M1 + k0tt0 bo lm0g0n h0jmd0gi mudd0tli >m>n0tl0r v0 b>shq0 t5z likvidli j0mg 0rm0l0r; 4) M3 0gr5g0ti = M2 + k0tt0 h0jml0rd0gi mudd0tli >m>n0tl0r; 5) M4 0gr5g0ti = M3 + yirik tij>r0t b0nkl0rining d5p>zit s5rtifik0tl0ri. Mu>m0l0 d>ir0si jih0tid0n pul ikki turg0 bo lin0di. Birinchisi milliy pul bo lib, u 0yrim >ling0n m0ml0k0td0 0m0l qil0di. Bu pull0r kupyur0, ya ni m0 lum qiym0tg0 eg0 pul birligi sh0klid0 mu>m0l0d0 yur0di. Ikkinchi pul sh0kli E0lq0r> miqyosd0gi puldir. M0Esus chiq0rilg0n j0h>n puli yo q. Uning v0zif0sini h>zirgi d0vrd0 q0drli v0lyut0l0r (5vr>, d>ll0r v0 h.z.) b0j0r0di. Pulning likvidligi tushunch0si h0m bo lib, likvidlik pulnig E>hl0g0n v0qtd0 v0 >s>ngin0 b>shq0 n0rs0g0 0yl0n0 bilishi, h0r q0nd0y ish uchun q0bul qilinishidir. Likvidlik tuf0yli pul o z eg0l0rig0 ehtiyojl0rni s0m0r0li v0 t5z q>ndirishg0 sh0r>it yar0t0di. Pulning q0dri uning qurbi, ya ni shu pul birligig0 nim0 b5rish mumkinligini bildir0di. Pulning qurbi n0rEg0 b>g liq. J0miyatd0 0rz>nchilik bo ls0, pul q0dri >sh0di, qimm0tchilik sh0r>itl0rid0 es0 uning q0dri tushib k5t0di. Pulning iqtis>diyotd0gi 0h0miyati u to g risid0 ko pl0b n0z0riyal0rning p0yd> bo lishig0 >lib k5ldi. Ul0rning 0yriml0ri ustid0 ikki >g iz fikr yurits0k. It0liyad0 yash0b o tg0n b0nkir B.Div0nz5tti (1529-1606 yy) o z v0qtid0yoq pulning o rnig0 b0h> b5rib, uni iqtis>diy >rg0nizmning q>nig0 o Esh0tg0n. Kl0ssik m0kt0b 0s>schil0rid0n V.P5tti o z q0r0shl0rid0 pulning v0zif0l0ri, mu>m0l0d0gi pul miqd>ri m0s0l0sig0 ko p to Et0lg0n. P5ttining fikrich0, pul ins>n >rg0nizmid0gi yog g0 o Esh0ydi. M0 lumki, yog ning >rtig i h0m, k0mi h0m ziyondir, ya ni uning m5 yord0 bo lishi yaEshi. Yhn0 bir kl0ssik m0kt0b 0s>schisi .Smit pulni mu>m0l0ning buyuk g ildir0gi d5b 0t0g0n. XX 0srning eng yirik iqtis>diy m0kt0bl0rid0n biri K5ynschilik g0rchi d0vl0t yo li bil0n iqtis>diyotni t0rtibg0 s>lishni 0s>siy, d5b bilg0n bo ls0 h0m, pul v0 n0rEning, ishl0b chiq0rish h0jmi v0 pulning o z0r> b>g liqligig0, pul >b>r>ti t5zligig0, pulni j0mg 0rish z0rurligig0 e tib>rni q0r0tg0n. Pulning iqtis>diyotd0gi o rnig0 0yniqs0 m>n5t0rizm t0 lim>ti k0tt0 o rin b5r0di. Bu t0 lim>tning b>sh g >yasi  iqtis>diy o sishni b>z>r m5E0nizmi t0 minl0ydi, bu m5E0nizmning 0s>siy v>sit0si pul, d5g0n Eul>s0d0n ib>r0t. M>n5t0rizm pulni ko kk0 ko t0ruvchi n0z0riyadir. M>n5t0ristl0r iqtis>diy o sishning eng muhim sh0rti inflyatsiyani d0f etish v0 pulni s>g l>ml0shtirish, pulni Eo j0lik mu>m0l0si v>sit0sig0 0yl0ntirish, d5b q0r0ydil0r. M0 lumki, pul o zig0 E>s t>v0rdir. SHund0y ek0n, b>shq0 t>v0rl0r k0bi pul h0m t0l0b v0 t0klif t0 sirid0 bo l0di. Pul t0klifi mu>m0l0g0 chiq0rilg0n m0 lum turd0gi pul miqd>ridir. Pul t0klifi pul emissiyasi bil0n b>g liq. Pul emissiyasi d0vl0t t>m>nid0n pulning mu>m0l0g0 chiq0rib turilishidir. Pul emissiyasini pulg0 t0l0b b5lgil0ydi. Pulg0 t0l0b Eo j0lik >b>r>ti uchun k5r0k pulg0 ehtiyojdir. Pulg0 t0l0b pul >p5r0tsiyal0rining miqyosi v0 t5zligi bil0n o lch0n0di. Pul bil0n mu>m0l0 qilish ishl0ri q0nch0lik ko p bo ls0, shunch0lik ko p pul k5r0k bo l0di. g0r pul q0nch0lik t5z 0yl0nib turs0, pulg0 t0l0b shunch0lik qisq0r0di. Yuq>rid0 0ytilg0nl0rd0n k5lib chiqib, pul mu>m0l0sini if>d0l0sh mumkin. Pul mu>m0l0si, bu t>v0r v0 Eizm0tl0rning r50liz0tsiyasig0 sh0r>it yar0tib b5ruvchi pull0rning h0r0k0tidir. B>shq0ch0 0ytg0nd0, u t>v0rl0r 0yl0nishig0 v0 n>t>v0r E0r0kt5rd0gi to l>vl0r v0 his>bl0rg0 Eizm0t qiluvchi n0qd pull0r v0 ung0 t5ngl0shtirilg0n 0ktivl0rning h0r0k0tidir. Pul mu>m0l0si o zig0 E>s q>nunl0rg0 0s>sl0ng0n h>ld0 0m0lg0 >shiril0di. Shul0rd0n biri mu>m0l0 uchun z0rur bo lg0n pul miqd>rini 0niql0sh bil0n b>g liq h>l0tdir. Mu>m0l0 uchun z0rur bo lg0n pul miqd>ri quyid0gi f>rmul0 bil0n 0niql0n0di:  Bu 5rd0 PM  pul miqd>ri; TB  s>tilishi l>zim bo lg0n t>v0r v0 Eizm0tl0r summ0si; %q  q0rzg0 (n0siyag0) s>tilg0n t>v0r v0 Eizm0tl0r summ0si; %t  to l>v muhl0ti 5tib k5lg0n t>v0rl0r summ0si; t  pulning 0yl0nish t5zligi. Inflyatsiya, uning s0b0bl0ri v0 ko rinishl0ri. D0vl0tning inflyatsiyag0 q0rshi siyos0ti Inflyatsiya tushunch0si birinchi m0rt0 m5rik0d0 1861-1865 yill0rd0gi fuq0r>l0r urushi d0vrid0 ishl0til0 b>shl0ng0n. Iqtis>diy 0d0biyotl0rd0 inflyatsiya tushunch0si XX 0srd0, birinchi j0h>n urushid0n k5yin k5ng t0rq0ldi.  Inflyatsiya t5rmini l>tinch0 so zd0n >ling0n bo lib,  shishish d5g0n m0 n>ni bildir0di. S>g l>m b>z>r iqtis>diyoti pulg0 t0l0b v0 t0klif muv>z0n0td0 bo lishini t0q>z> et0di. mm> h0yotd0 bund0y muv>z0n0t buzilib turishi h>ll0ri ro y b5r0di. Bung0 s0b0b pul miqd>rig0 t0 sir etuvchi >mill0rning izd0n chiqishidir. M0 lumki, >ltin v0 kumush mu>m0l0si sh0r>itl0rid0 pull0r b>ylikning simv>lini em0s, b0lki h0qiqiy b>ylikni if>d0 et0di h0md0 mu>m0l0 uchun z0rur bo lg0n pul miqd>ri j0mg 0rish funktsiyasi >rq0li t0rtibg0 s>lin0di. g0r till0 v0 kumush t0ng0l0r h0rid uchun l>zim bo lg0n miqd>rd0n ko p bo ls0, ul0r E0zin0 sif0tid0 yig il0 b>shl0n0di. Bu h>ld0 ul0r q0drsizl0nm0ydil0r. Q>g >z pul mu>m0l0sid0 pull0r simv>l ko rinishig0 eg0 bo l0dil0r. Ul0r jud0 >z miqd>rd0 j0mg 0rm0 sif0tid0 to pl0nib b>r0dil0r. Pul >rtiqch0ligi sh0r>itl0rid0 ul0rning ko p0yib q>lg0n 0s>siy qismi mu>m0l0d0 q>l0v5r0di. h>li qo lid0gi ushbu pull0r yalpi t0l0bni o stir0di, u es0, o z n0vb0tid0 n0rEl0rning o sishig0 turtki bo l0di. Inflyatsiya  mu>m0l0d0 k5r0gid0n >rtiqch0 pul p0yd> bo lib, n0rE-n0v> o sib, pul q0dr-qiym0ti, ya ni uning h0rid q>biliyatining p0s0yishi, pulning >bro sizl0nishidir. Inflyatsiya n0rE-n0v> ind5ksining >rtishid0 , 0niqr>g i qimm0tchilikd0 if>d0 etil0di. Inflyatsiyani nim0 k5ltirib chiq0r0di? Inflyatsiyani k5ltirib chiq0ruvchi s0b0bl0r nih>yatd0 r0ng-b0r0ng bo lishi mumkin. Ul0rd0n 0yriml0rini tilg0 >ls0k. Birinchid0n, inflyatsiyag0 0s>siy s0b0bni iqtis>diyotd0n (0niqr>g i, ishl0b chiq0rishd0n) qidirish l>zim. Ishl0b chiq0rish sustl0shib, b>z>r t0l0bid0n >rq0d0 q>lg0n v0qtd0 t>v0r t0klifl0ri mu>m0l0d0gi pull0rni  to ydir0 >lm0ydi. Bu h>l n0rEl0rni >shirib, pul birligi q0drini tushirib yub>r0di; ikkinchid0n, E0r0j0tl0rning iqtis>diy imk>niyatl0r d>ir0sid0 bo lm0sligi. H0r q0nd0y Eo j0lik sub 5kti, juml0d0n d0vl0t h0m qiling0n E0r0j0tl0rni q>pl0shi l>zim. g0r m0kr>d0r0j0d0 n0tij0l0r E0r0j0tl0rni q>pl0m0s0, 0yrim h>ll0rd0 d0vl0t k0m>m0dni mu>m0l0g0 qo shimch0 pul chiq0rish (emissiya) his>bid0n q>pl0ydi. Bu pull0r t>v0rl0r bil0n t0 minl0nm0g0ni uchun inflyatsiyag0 0s>s yar0til0di; uchinchid0n, iqtis>diyotd0gi m>n>p>ll0shuvning yuks0k d0r0j0si h0m inflyatsiyani k5ltirib chiq0rishi mumkin. CHunki m>n>p>ll0shuv r0q>b0tni qisq0rtirib, t0klif miqd>rining k0m0yishig0 v0 shu 0s>sd0 m>n>p>l yuq>ri n0rEl0rning o rn0tilishi v0 ul0rning ushl0b turilishig0 >lib k5l0di; to rtinchid0n, iqtis>diyotning milit0riz0tsiyal0shuvi, ya ni h0rbiy E0r0j0tl0rning o sib k5tishi d0vl0t byudj5ti k0m>m0dining munt0z0m tus >lishig0 >lib k5l0di. Bu es0 k0m>m0dni q>pl0sh uchun ko pl0b q>g >z pull0rni b>sishni t0q>z> et0di; b5shinchid0n, m0ml0k0t iqtis>diyotining >chiqligi v0 uning j0h>n Eo j0lik 0l>q0l0rig0 b>rg0n s0ri kirib b>rishi j0h>n b>z>rl0rid0 n0rEl0rning o sishi sh0r>itl0rid0  imp>rt qilin0dig0n inflyatsiyani k5ltirib chiq0rishi mumkin. Juml0d0n, 1999 yil PK ning n5ftni q0zib >lishni ch5kl0sh to g risid0gi q0r>ri imp>rt qilin0dig0n n5ftL n0rEining o isb k5tishig0 v0 buning >qib0tid0 t5En>l>gik z0njir 0s>sid0 bir q0t>r b>shq0 t>v0rl0r n0rEining ko t0rilishig0 s0b0b bo ldi. ltinchid0n, yaEshi o yl0nm0g0n s>liq siyos0ti h0m inflyatsiyag0 turtki bo lishi mumkin. S>liq st0vk0l0rini ko t0rish yoki yangi s>liql0rni j>riy etish ishl0b chiq0rish r5nt0b5lligining p0s0yishi >rq0sid0, yoEud E0r0j0tl0rning t>v0r n0rEining sh0kll0nish j0r0yonid0 his>bg0 >linishi >rq0sid0 t0klifning qisq0rishig0 >lib k5l0di. Ikk0l0 h>ld0 h0m n0rEl0r o s0di; ttinchid0n, bir tizimd0n ikkinchisig0 o tish, k0tt0 iqtis>diy isl>h>tl0r, turli ko zd0 tutilm0g0n t0biiy >f0tl0r h0m inflyatsiyani k5ltirib chiq0rishi mumkin v0 nih>yat; S0kkizinchid0n, inflyatsiyag0 yuq>rid0 tilg0 >ling0n h>l0tl0rd0n t0shq0ri inflyatsi>n kutishning o zi h0m s0b0b bo lishi mumkin. Inflyatsiyaning ikki tipini  >chiq v0 b>stirilg0n inflyatsiyani f0rql0sh l>zim. chiq inflyatsiya erkin n0rEl0r 0m0l qil0dig0n b>z>rl0rd0 n0m>yon bo lib, uch Eil ko rinishd0 o z if>d0sini t>p0di. Bul0r: - t0l0b inflyatsiyasi; - E0r0j0tl0r inflyatsiyasi; - t0rkibiy inflyatsiya. T0l0b inflyatsiyasi yalpi t0l0bning ishl0b chiq0rishning h0qiqiy h0jmid0n k0tt0ligi >rq0sid0 yuz b5rib, u n0rEl0r d0r0j0sining o sishini k5ltirib chiq0r0di. %0r0j0tl0r (t0klif) inflyatsiyasi, >d0td0, ishl0b chiq0rish >mill0rig0 n0rEning >shishi 0s>sid0 sh0kll0n0di. Q0zib >lish sh0r>itl0ri v0 t0shish E0r0j0tl0ri o zg0rishi >rq0sid0 E>m 0shyo qimm0tl0sh0di, 0sb>b-uskun0l0rning n0rEi ko t0ril0di. Bu es0, >Eir->qib0t pir>v0rd m0hsul>tning n0rEid0 o z if>d0sini t>p0di. Bung0 yorqin mis>l t0riq0sid0 XX 0srning 70-yill0rid0 n5ftning bir b0rr5lig0 n0rE 1,8 d>ll0rd0n 32 d>ll0rg0 ko t0rilib k5tg0nini ko rs0tish mumkin. T0rkibiy inflyatsiya m0kr>iqtis>diy t0rm>ql0r0r> n>muv>fiqlikd0n k5lib chiq0diki, und0 0yrim t0rm>ql0r b>z>rni 5t0rli t>v0rl0r bil0n t5zd0 q>ndir0 >lm0ydi. Bu es0 m0 lum bir m0hsul>tl0rg0 nisb0t0n munt0z0m r0vishd0 q>ndirilm0g0n t0l0bni sh0kll0ntirib, n0rEl0rning o sishig0 >lib k5l0di. B>stirilg0n inflyatsiyad0 d0vl0t n0rEl0rning o sishid0n cho chib, bu E>dis0 bil0n kur0shg0 kirish0di. U n0rE v0 d0r>m0dl0r ustid0n q0ttiq m0 muriy n0z>r0t o rn0tib, ul0rni m0 lum d0r0j0d0 ushl0b turishg0 h0r0k0t qil0di. SHuni t0 kidl0sh l>zimki, bu bil0n d0vl0t inflyatsiyani yuz0g0 k5ltiruvchi iqtis>diy n5gizl0r bil0n kur0shm0y, b0lki inflyatsiya n0tij0si bo lg0n n0rEl0rning o sishi bil0n shug ull0n0di. %0lq0r> t0jrib0d0 n0rEl0rning o sish sur 0tl0rid0n k5lib chiqib, inflyatsiyani quyid0gi ko rinishl0rg0 bo lish q0bul qiling0n: - n>rm0l  yilig0 inflyatsiya sur 0ti 3-3,5% bo lg0nid0; - m5 yoriy  yilig0 inflyatsiya sur 0ti 10% bo lg0nid0; - yo rg 0l>vchi  yilig0 inflyatsiya sur 0ti 200% g0ch0 bo lg0nid0; - gip5rinflyatsiya  yilig0 inflyatsiya sur 0ti 200% d0n >shiq bo lg0nd0. d0td0, inflyatsiyaning 5ngil turl0ri iqtis>diy o sish sh0r>itid0 yuz b5rs0, >g ir turl0ri iqtis>diy turg unlik yoki t0nglik sh0r>itid0 s>dir bo l0di. Inflyatsiyaning iqtis>diy t0nglik bil0n birg0likd0 yuz b5rishi st0gflyatsiya, d5b 0t0l0di. Inflyatsiyaning muhim ko rs0tkichl0rid0n biri uning d0r0j0sidir. Uni his>bl0sh uchun n0rE-n0v> ind5ksi qo ll0nil0di, ya ni m0 lum yild0gi n0rEl0r 100% d5b q0bul qilin0di v0 k5yingi yild0gi n0rEl0rning o zg0rishi shung0 nisb0t0n o lch0n0di. M0s0l0n, 2011 yild0gi n0rEl0rni 100% d5b >ls0k, 2012 yil u 107 g0 t5ng bo ldi. SHung0 ko r0 yillik inflyatsiya d0r0j0si his>bl0n0di:  bu 5rd0 ID  inflyatsiya d0r0j0si.  JLJN(ŰؠvgؠWKhlSh1 5CJaJh1 B*CJaJmH phsH h?75h1 CJaJmHCsHChw th1 CJaJmHCsHChk Rh1 CJaJmHCsHCh1 CJaJmHCsHCh1 B*CJaJmHCphsHC(h?75h1 5B*CJaJmH phsH %h?75h1 B*CJaJmH phsH %h?75h1 B*CJaJmHCphsHC(h?75h1 5B*CJaJmHCphsHCV  l vJJNv$-DM `a$gd1 $-DM `a$gd1 LJJ  N#$-DM `a$gd1 $^`a$gd1  $`a$gd1 $-DM `a$gd1 $ & F ^`a$gd1  $`a$gd1 (,.FJNRTVXZjnprtv н۽ۭo(h?75h1 5B*CJaJmHCphsHC+h?75h1 5>*B*CJaJmHCphsHC%h1 h1 B*CJaJmH phsH h1 B*CJaJmH phsH h:CJaJh h1 CJaJhlSh1 CJaJh1 CJaJhlSh1 5CJaJhlSh1 5CJaJmH sH %N#&(.*l+ -L//h0611@2B2*5(78:@;>r@C*FHK`MbMfMhMM$-DM `a$gd1 ((**l++,,--J3X3*5N5DD\ExE|FFXIrIbMdMfM*N.NNN>O@O|O,PYY[[ooo̽쨽xfx#jh(0JCJUaJmHCsHCh?75h1 >*CJaJmHCsHCh?75h1 5CJaJmHCsHCh?75h1 CJH*aJmHCsHC(h?75h1 B*CJH*aJmHCphsHCh?75h1 CJaJmHCsHCjh[h1 U(h?75h1 >*B*CJaJmHCphsHC%h?75h1 B*CJaJmHCphsHC(MNN OzO|O,P.PRDWY[(jmVnZoop qXqqrZvx{|$-DM `a$gd1 $-DM `a$gd1 ooqqrrrsZvjvxxn܃`§|^v^,Xt0:LD#jhgH$0JCJUaJmHCsHCjZh[h1 U#jhV0JCJUaJmHCsHCh?75h1 5CJaJmHCsHCh#dh1 CJaJmHCsHCUjm h[h1 Uh?75h1 CJaJmHCsHCh?75h1 >*CJaJmHCsHC2|6}}.~~܃(zΗ.dhМ^`$-DM `a$gd1 $-DM `a$gd1 Inflyatsiya 0h>li f0r>v>nligi v0 ishl0b chiq0rish d0r0j0sig0 o z s0lbiy t0 sirini o tk0z0di. Ul0r juml0sig0, 0vv0l>, quyid0gil0rni kiritish mumkin: - umumiy turmush d0r0j0sining p0s0yishi; - 0h>li j0mg 0rm0l0rining q0drsizl0nishi; - d0r>m0d v0 b>ylikl0rning q0yt0 t0qsiml0nishi; - ishl0b chiq0rishg0 r0g b0tl0rning sus0yishi; - b0nkr>tlik v0 ishl0b chiq0rish h0jml0rining p0s0yishi; - iqtis>diy m0 lum>tl0rning turg unsizligi v0 h.z. Inflyatsiya iqtis>diyotg0 z0r0r y5tk0zishini his>bg0 >lib, d0vl0t uni tug0tish v0 jud0 bo lm0s0 yumsh0tish uchun h0r0k0t qil0di. D0vl0tning bu s>h0d0gi siyos0ti d0vl0tning 0ntiinflyatsi>n siyos0ti, d5yil0di. Bu siyos0t quyid0gi yo n0lishl0rd0 >lib b>ril0di: 1. Ishl0b chiq0rishni j>nl0ntirish. Buning uchun d0vl0t firm0l0rg0 p0st f>iz bil0n q0rz b5r0di, s>liql0r k0m0ytiril0di, eksp>rt-imp>rt ishl0ri bo yich0 imtiyozl0r b5ril0di v0 h.z. 2. Pul emissiyasini ch5kl0sh yoki to Et0tib qo yish. SHu m0qs0dd0 pul d0r>m0dl0ri ch5kl0b qo yil0di. rtiqch0 pull0r t>v0r b>z>rid0n chiq0rib >linishi uchun b0nk d5p>zitl0ri uchun b0nk to l0ydig0n pr>ts5nt >shiril0di v0 h.z. Pulning ko p0yib k5tishi iqtis>diyot uchun n>m0qbul E>dis0 ek0nligini ko rdik. Pulning mu>m0l0d0 k0m0yib k5tishi h0m yaEshi em0s. Pulning 5tishm0y q>lishi to l>v >p5r0tsiyal0rini s5kinl0shtirib v0 E0tt> to Et0tib qo yishi mumkin. N0tij0d0 firm0l0r t>v0rl0rini o z v0qtid0 s>t0 >lm0ydil0r, k5r0kli r5sursl0rni es0 h0rid et0 >lm0ydil0r, ish h0qi v0 s>liql0rni o z v0qtid0 to l0y bilm0dil0r. Bu h0m iqtis>diyotni ishd0n chiq0r0di. Iqtis>diyotd0 d5flyatsiya h>l0tl0ri h0m bo lishi mumkin. D5flyatsiya n0rE-n0v> p0s0yishini, pul q0drining >rtishini bildir0di. D5flyatsiya iqtis>diyot s>g l>ml0shg0nid0n d0l>l0t b5r0di. Kr5ditning m>hiyati, v0zif0l0ri v0 turl0ri Kr5dit l>tinch0  credium  ssud0,  credo  ish>n0m0n so zl0ri bil0n b>g liq. Iqtis>diyotd0 kr5dit o zig0 E>s o rin tut0di. g0r m>liya b0rch0 Eo j0lik sub 5ktl0rining o zig0 t5gishli pul m0bl0g l0ri Eususid0gi 0l>q0l0rini 0ngl0ts0, kr5dit o zg0 mulki bo lg0n pulni q0rzg0 >lib, ishl0tish b>r0sid0gi mun>s0b0tl0rni bildir0di. M>liya v0 kr5ditning umumiyligi  h0r ikkisi h0m pul m0bl0g l0ri yuz0sid0n bo l0dig0n mun>s0b0tl0rdir. Ul0rning f0rqi es0 pul m0bl0g l0rini j0ml0sh v0 ishl0tishning o zig0 E>sligidir. Kr5dit iqtis>diy tushunch0 sif0tid0 o z eg0l0ri qo lid0 v0qtinch0 bo sh turg0n pul m0bl0g l0rini b>shq0l0r t>m>nid0n m0 lum mudd0tg0 h0q to l0sh sh0rti bil0n q0rzg0 >lish v0 q0yt0rib b5rish yuz0sid0n k5lib chiqq0n mun>s0b0tl0rni 0ngl0t0di. Kr5dit mun>s0b0ti ikki t>m>n, ya ni biri pul eg0si v0 ikkinchisi pulg0 muht>j (q0rz >luvchi) o rt0sid0 yuz0g0 k5l0di. %o j0lik yurituvchi sub 5ktl0r o rt0sid0gi o zig0 E>s mun>s0b0t sif0tid0gi kr5ditning z0ruriyati quyid0gi h>l0tl0r bil0n iz>hl0n0di. Bir t>m>nd0n kimningdir qo lid0 v0qtinch0lik bo sh pul m0bl0g l0ri m0vjud bo l0di. Bul0r - 0m>rtiz0tsiya f>ndl0ri, ishl0b chiq0rishni k5ng0ytirish uchun yig il0yotg0n m0bl0g l0r, t0yyor t>v0rl0rni s>tish v0qti bil0n E>m 0shyo E0rid etish uchun ishl0til0dig0n m0bl0g l0rni ishg0 s>lish v0qti >r0sid0gi f0rqd0n k5lib chiquvchi m>liyaviy r5sursl0r v0 h.z. h>li v0 n>tij>r0t t0shkil>tl0rid0 ul0r j0mg 0rm0 sh0klid0 n0m>yon bo l0di. Ikkinchi t>m>nd0n es0, kiml0rdir qo shimch0 m0bl0g l0rg0 muht>jlik s5z0di, m0s0l0n, ishl0b chiq0rishni k5ng0ytirish v0 yangil0sh, ish h0qini v0qtid0 to l0sh, o z ishini >chish; 0h>li uchun es0 yirik h0ridl0rni 0m0lg0 >shirish d>im> pulg0 z0ruriyat tug dir0di. Bu h>l0tl0r v0 b>z>r iqtis>diyotining ichki q>nuniyati  pull0r d>im> h0r0k0td0 bo lishi k5r0kligi  kr5dit tizimining d>im> riv>jl0nishig0 0s>s bo lib Eizm0t qil0di. Kr5dit mun>s0b0tl0rid0 pul m0bl0g l0rini bir>vg0 b5rg0n sub 5kt kr5dit>r, d5yil0di. Kr5dit >lg0n sh0Es q0rz >luvchi his>bl0n0di. Kr5ditd0n f>yd0l0ng0nlik uchun pr>ts5nt (f>iz) to l0n0di. Kr5dit ikki 0s>siy b5lgi bil0n E0r0kt5rl0n0di. Birinchid0n, t>v0r, Eizm0t yoki pulni q0rzg0 b5rish bil0n, ul0r ekviv0l5ntini q0yt0rib >lish >r0sid0 m0 lum bir v0qt o t0di. Ikkinchid0n, kr5dit mun>s0b0tl0rig0 kirishuvchil0r o rt0sid0 ish>nch yot0di. Bund0y ish>nch m0 lum bir t5kshiruvl0r >rq0sid0 yuz0g0 k5l0di. B>z>r iqtis>diyotid0 kr5dit bir q0t>r v0zif0l0rni b0j0r0di. Ul0rd0n 0s>siyl0ri: 1. Kr5dit v0qtinch0 bo sh turg0n pul m0bl0g l0rini funktsiya qil0yotg0n k0pit0lg0 0yl0ntirib, ijtim>iy ishl0b chiq0rish ko l0ml0rini >shir0di. 2. Q0rz b5rish >rq0li pul m0bl0g l0rini turli t0rm>ql0r o rt0sid0 q0yt0 t0qsiml0b, kr5dit ko pr>q d0r>m0d >lish mumkin bo lg0n yoki milliy iqtis>diyotni riv>jl0ntirishg0 q0r0tilg0n d0vl0t d0sturl0rig0 t00lluqli bo lg0n s>h0l0rg0 ko pr>q m0bl0g l0r yo n0ltirishni t0 minl0ydi. 3. Pulg0 t5ngl0shtirilg0n to l>v v>sit0l0rini (v5ks5lL, ch5k, s5rtifik0t v0 h.z.) yuz0g0 chiq0rib, ul0rni Eo j0lik >b>r>tig0 j>riy et0di. 4. Kr5dit k0pit0lning to pl0nuvi v0 m0rk0zl0shuvini t0 minl0ydi. 5. Q0rz mun>s0b0tl0ri >rq0li iqtis>diy o sish r0g b0tl0ntiril0di. 6. Kr5dit o z mu0ss0s0l0ri >rq0li iqtis>diy sub 5ktl0r f0>liyati ustid0n n0z>r0tni 0m0lg0 >shir0di. 7. Kr5dit m0 lum d0r0j0d0 iqtis>diyotni t0rtibg0 s>l0di. Kr5dit turli Eil sh0kll0rd0 n0m>yon bo l0di. Kr5dit sh0kll0ri q0tn0shchil0r t0rkibi, ssud0 >b 5ktl0ri, din0mik0si, f>iz miqd>ri, 0m0l qilish s>h0l0ri bo yich0 f0rql0n0di. B>z>r iqtis>diyotid0 kr5dit ikki Eil sh0kld0 b5rilishi mumkin. Bul0r  pul sh0klid0 v0 t>v0r kr5diti. O z n0vb0tid0 t>v0r kr5diti k>mm5rtsiya (tij>r0t) kr5diti (t>v0rl0r n0siyag0 b5ril0di v0 v5ks5ll0rd0n f>yd0l0nil0di) h0md0 lizing kr5diti (qimm0t turuvchi m0shin0 v0 uskun0l0r ij0r0g0 q0rzg0 b5ril0di) ko rinishl0rig0 eg0. Tij>r0t kr5diti bir k>rE>n0ning b>shq0sig0 n0siyag0 m>l s>tishi bil0n b>g liq. G0rchi bu sh0kl t>v0rl0rni r50liz0tsiya qilishni r0g b0tl0ntirs0 h0m, t0 sir d>ir0si 0nch0 ch5kl0ng0n. Birinchid0n, uning h0jml0ri kr5dit>rning bo sh f>ndl0ri miqd>ri bil0n, ikkinchid0n, uning h0r0k0ti f0q0t s0vd> s>h0si bil0n h0md0 uchinchid0n, kr5dit bu 5rd0 t>r m0qs0dli f>yd0l0nilishi bil0n ch5kl0ng0n. T0riEiy riv>jl0nish j0r0yonid0 tij>r0t kr5ditining ch5kl0ng0nligi b0nk kr5ditining yuz0g0 k5lishi v0 riv>jl0nishi bil0n b0rt0r0f etildi. B0nk kr5diti  kr5ditning 0s>siy v0 5t0kchi sh0kli sif0tid0 chiq0di. U pul eg0l0ri  b0nkl0r v0 m0Esus kr5dit mu0ss0s0l0ri t>m>nid0n q0rz >luvchil0rg0 pul ssud0l0ri sh0klid0 b5ril0di. B0nk kr5diti umumiy E0r0kt5r k0sb etib, yo n0lishi, mudd0ti v0 kr5dit bitiml0ri summ0si bo yich0 ch5kl0nm0ydi. Uning f>yd0l0nish s>h0si t>v0r mu>m0l0sid0n t>rtib k0pit0l j0mg 0rilishig0ch0 k5ng0yadi. Ist5 m>lchilik kr5diti b5v>sit0 uy Eo j0likl0rig0 b5ril0di. Uning >b 5ktl0ri bo lib uz>q mudd0t f>yd0l0nil0dig0n t>v0rl0r (kv0rtir0l0r, 0vt>m0shin0l0r, m5b5lL v0 h.z.) chiq0di. U ch0k0n0 s0vd> m0g0zinl0ri >rq0li t>v0rl0rning h0qini k5chiktirib to l0sh bil0n s>tish sh0klid0 yoki ist5 m>lchilik m0qs0dl0rid0 bir yild0n uch yilg0ch0 mudd0t bil0n b0nk ssud0l0ri b5rish sh0klid0 0m0lg0 >shiril0di. ist5 m>lchilik kr5ditid0n f>yd0l0nilg0nlik uchun 0nch0 yuq>ri f>iz to l0n0di. Ip>t5k0 kr5diti m0Esus b0nkl0r v0 t0shkil>tl0r t>mnid0n Eususiy sh0Esl0rg0 ko chm0s mulk (5r, tur0r-j>y, insh>>tl0r) ni g0r>vg0 qo yish bil0n b5ril0dig0n kr5ditdir. D0vl0t kr5diti kr5dit mun>s0b0tl0rig0 d0vl0tni t>rtish bil0n yuz0g0 k5l0dig0n kr5ditdir. Bund0y mun>s0b0tl0rd0 d0vl0t q0rzd>r sif0tid0 v0 0h>li h0md0 Eususiy bizn5s kr5dit>r t0rzid0 ishtir>k et0di. %0lq0r> kr5dit E0lq0r> iqtis>diy mun>s0b0tl0r s>h0sid0 ssud0 k0pit0lining h0r0k0tini if>d0 et0di. U yo t>v0r yoki v0lyut0 sh0klid0 bo lishi mumkin. %0lq0r> t0shkil>tl0r, hukum0tl0r, b0nkl0r, k>rp>r0tsiyal0r uning sub 5ktl0ri his>bl0n0di. K5yingi v0qtl0rd0 kr5ditl0shning lizing, f0kt>ring, f>rf5yting, tr0st k0bi sh0kll0ri riv>jl0nm>qd0. Kr5dit q0ysi h>l0td0 b5rilm0sin, kr5dit t0m>yill0rig0 ri>ya etilg0n h>ld0 b5ril0di. Bul0r kr5ditning m0 lum mudd0tg0 b5rilishi, kr5dit uchun h0q to l0sh z0rurligi, q0yt0rib b5rilishi v0 kr5ditning k0f>l0tl0nishidir. Kr5dit pul b>z>ri m0hsuli, bu 5rd0 pul m0bl0g ini >ldi-s>tdi qilish yuz b5r0di. YUq>rid0 0ytilg0nid5k, q0rzg0 b5rilg0n pul ssud0 d5yil0di. Bu pul ishg0 s>linib, d0r>m0d t>pish yo lid0 ishl0tils0, u ssud0 k0pit0li sh0klini >l0di. Q0rz uchun to l0ng0n h0qning q0rz qiling0n summ0g0 nisb0t0n f>izd0gi nisb0ti q0rz pr>ts5nti (f>izi), d5yil0di. Pr>ts5nt miqd>ri yoki d0r0j0si >ldind0n b5lgil0n0di. Pr>ts5nt d0r0j0si quyid0gich0 0niql0n0di:  Bu 5rd0 PD  pr>ts5nt d0r0j0si; KP  q0rz pr>ts5nti; KM  q0rz miqd>ri. B0nkl0r, ul0rning iqtis>diyotd0gi o rni. B0nk tizimi Kr5dit, pul q0rz b5rish ikki usuld0 yuz b5rishi mumkin: birinchid0n, b5v>sit0 usul bo lib, bu q0rz b5ruvchi v0 q0rz >luvchi o z0r> 0l>q0d0 bo lishi v0 b5v>sit0 pul q0rz >lish yo li yoki n0siyag0 m>l s>tish yo li bil0n 0m0lg0 >sh0di. Ikkinchi usul bilv>sit0 bo lib, q0rz b5rish v>sit0chilik yo li bil0n, ya ni uchinchi sub 5kt yord0mid0 0m0lg0 >sh0di. Bund0 0l>hid0 kr5dit t0shkil>tl0ri yuz0g0 k5lib, b0nkl0r p0yd> bo l0di. M0 lumki, d0vl0t pul-kr5dit siyos0tining v0zif0si shund0n ib>r0tki, ung0 ko r0 iqtis>diyotd0gi pul miqd>ri Eo j0lik riv>jl0nishining 0s>siy m0qs0dl0rig0 m>s k5lishi l>zim, ya ni ishch0n f0>llikning >shishi, inflyatsiyaning p0s0yishi v0 m0ml0k0t to l>v b0l0nsining qo ll0b-quvv0tl0nishi t0 minl0nishi z0rur. Bu siyos0tni d0vl0t b0nk tizimi >rq0li 0m0lg0 >shir0di. H0r q0nd0y m0ml0k0tning b0nk tizimi uning iqtis>diyotining 0jr0lm0s t0rkibiy qismi his>bl0n0di. Pul-kr5dit mun>s0b0tl0ri d>ir0sid0 b0nkl0r ishl0b chiq0rish v0 ist5 m>l s>h0l0rining b5to Et>v 0m0l qilishini t0 minl0ydi. B0nk tizimi iqtis>diyotni pul-kr5dit yo li bil0n t0rtibg0 s>lishg0 Eizm0t qil0di. Ko pgin0 m0ml0k0tl0rd0 b0nk tizimi ikki b>sqichli bo lib, u o z ichig0 m0rk0ziy b0nk v0 tij>r0t b0nkl0ri h0md0 turli iEtis>sl0shg0n m>liya-kr5dit t0shkil>tl0rini kirit0di. B0nk tizimining yuq>ri d0r0j0si pul mu>m0l0si v0 kr5ditni t0shkil etish, pul birligi q0drini tushirm0slik, tij>r0t b0nkl0ri ustid0n iqtis>diy n0z>r0t yuritish bil0n b>g liq. Tij>r0t b0nkl0ri (ikkinchi d0r0j0) es0 b5v>sit0 kr5dit v0 his>b-kit>b >p5r0tsiyal0rini yuritib, mij>zl0rg0 Eizm0t qil0dil0r. B0nk tizimid0 d0vl0tg0 q0r0shli bo lg0n M0rk0ziy b0nk 0s>siy his>bl0n0di v0 b0nk tizimining o z0gini t0shkil et0di. M0rk0ziy b0nk firm0l0r v0 0h>li bil0n >p5r0tsiyal0r >lib b>rm0ydi, uning mij>zl0ri  tij>r0t b0nkl0ri v0 b>shq0 kr5dit mu0ss0s0l0ri h0md0 turli hukum0t t0shkil>tl0ridir. M0rk0ziy b0nkning quyid0gi v0zif0l0ri m0vjud: - milliy v0lyut0 emissiyasi (mu>m0l0g0 pul chiq0rish); - hukum0tning m>liya 0g5nti v0zif0sini b0j0rish; - m0rk0zl0shg0n >ltin-v0lyut0 z0hir0l0rini s0ql0sh; - tij>r0t b0nkl0ri v0 b>shq0 kr5dit mu0ss0s0l0rig0 turli-tum0n Eizm0tl0r ko rs0tish; - pul mu>m0l0sini yo lg0 qo yish; - pul-kr5dit siyos0ti t0dbirl0rini 0m0lg0 >shirish. M0rk0ziy b0nk f0>liyat yurit0r ek0n, f>yd0 >lishni m0qs0d qilib qo ym0ydi. U m>liya b>z>rid0 tij>r0t b0nkl0ri v0 b>shq0 kr5dit mu0ss0s0l0ri bil0n r0q>b0tg0 kirishm0ydi. Uning 0s>siy m0qs0di  Eo j0likl0rni to l>v v>sit0l0ri bil0n b5to Et>v t0 minl0sh, his>b-kit>bl0r tizimini yo lg0 qo yish, b0nkl0r ishini n0z>r0t qilishdir. M0rk0ziy b0nk b>sh b0nkir v0 hukum0tning m>liya m0sl0h0tchisi sif0tid0 quyid0gil0r bil0n shug ull0n0di: - hukum0t t0shkil>tl0rining his>b-kit>bl0rini yurit0di, s>liq v0 b>shq0 tushuml0rni yig 0di, d0vl0t E0zin0si t0pshiriql0rig0 ko r0 to l>vl0rni 0m0lg0 >shir0di; - yangi d0vl0t z0yoml0rini chiq0rish v0 j>yl0shtirish bil0n b>g liq >p5r0tsiyal0rni o tk0z0di; - hukum0tning iltim>sig0 ko r0 b5v>sit0 k0ss0 kr5ditini 5tk0zib b5r0di; - o z p>rtf5li uchun d0vl0t qimm0tb0h> q>g >zl0rnii E0rid et0di; - m>liya v0 umumiqtis>diy m0s0l0l0r bo yich0 hukum0t v0 b>shq0 d0vl0t >rg0nl0rig0 m0sl0h0tl0r b5r0di. Yuq>rid0 0ytilg0n h>l0tl0rg0 ko r0 M0rk0ziy b0nk  b0nkl0r b0nki , d5b h0m 0t0l0di. Tij>r0t b0nkl0ri univ5rs0l kr5dit mu0ss0s0l0ri bo lib, q0yt0rilish v0 h0q to l0sh sh0rtl0ri bil0n pul v>sit0l0rini j0lb qilish h0md0 j>yl0shtirish v0 b>shq0 bir q0t>r >p5r0tsiyal0rni 0m0lg0 >shirish uchun t0shkil etil0dil0r. Tij>r0t b0nkl0ri f0>liyati ikki yoql0m0 E0r0kt5r k0sb et0di: ul0r bir t>m>nd0n, kr5dit mu0ss0s0l0ri bo ls0l0r, ikkinchi t>m>nd0n es0 ijtim>iy institutl0r bo lib his>bl0n0dil0r. Tij>r0t k>rE>n0l0ri sif0tid0 ul0r imk>ni b>rich0 ko pr>q f>yd0 >lishg0 intil0dil0r. Ijtim>iy institut sif0tid0 ul0r d5p>zitl0rni j0lb qilish v0 kr5dit b5rish >rq0li pull0rni ko p0ytir0dil0r. n0 shu bil0n ul0r b>shq0 tij>r0t t0shkil>tl0rid0n f0rq qil0dil0r. Tij>r0t b0nkl0ri m>liyaviy v>sit0chil0r sif0tid0 ish ko r0dil0r. Ul0r k0pit0ll0rni, 0h>li j0mg 0rm0l0ri v0 Eo j0lik f0>liyati j0r0yonid0 bo sh0b q>lg0n b>shq0 pul v>sit0l0rini j0lb qilib, pulg0 muht>j bo lg0n sub 5ktl0rg0 v0qtinch0lik f>yd0l0nishg0 b5rib tur0dil0r. Shund0y qilib, m>liyaviy v>sit0chil0r j0miyat uchun t0rm>ql0r0r> v0 Eududl0r0r> pul k0pit0lini q0yt0 t0qsiml0sh m5E0nizmini yar0tib, nih>yatd0 muhim E0lq Eo j0lik funktsiyasini b0j0r0dil0r. Tij>r0t b0nkl0rining eng muhim v0zif0l0ri juml0sig0 kir0di: - v0qtinch0lik bo sh0b q>lg0n pul v>sit0l0rini, j0mg 0rm0 v0 j0mg 0rish m0bl0g l0rini yig ish; - k>rE>n0l0r, t0shkil>tl0r, d0vl0t v0 0h>lini kr5ditl0shtirish; - his>b-kit>b Eizm0tl0rini ko rs0tish; - v5ks5ll0rni his>bg0 >lish, ul0r >p5r0tsiyal0rini kuz0tish; - qimm0tli q>g >zl0r bil0n >p5r0tsiyal0r o tk0zish; - m>liyaviy v0 m>ddiy b>ylikl0rni s0ql0b b5rish; - 0Eb>r>t-m0sl0h0t Eizm0tl0rini 0m0lg0 >shirish; - ish>nch 0s>sid0 (tr0st >p5r0tsiyal0ri) mij>zl0rning m>l-mulkini b>shq0rish; - s0vd>-k>missi>n f0>liyat yuritish. Tij>r0t b0nkl0ri ko p funktsiyali mu0ss0s0l0r bo lib, ssud0 k0pit0li b>z>rining turli bo g inl0rid0 ish ko r0dil0r. Yirik tij>r0t b0nkl0ri mij>zl0rig0 m>liyaviy Eizm0t ko rs0tishning to liq k>mpl5ksini, shu juml0d0n, kr5ditl0r b5rish, d5p>zitl0rni q0bul qilish, his>bl0rni yuritish v0 h.k. l0rni ijr> et0dil0r. SHu bil0n ul0r ch5kl0ng0n v0zif0l0rni b0j0ruvchi iEtis>sl0shg0n m>liya mu0ss0s0l0rid0n f0rq et0dil0r. M0 lumki, tij>r0t b0nki tij>r0t k>rE>n0si bo lib, b>z>r sh0r>itl0rid0 sh5rikl0ri bil0n 0l>q0l0rni b>z>r 0s>sl0rid0, ya ni f>yd0 ko rish v0 E0vf-E0t0rg0 b>rish n5gizid0 qur0di. mm> h0mish0 b0nk f>yd0lilikni E0vfsizlik v0 likvidlikni ko zl0b >lib b>rishi k5r0k. ks h>ld0 u to l>vg0 n>q>bil bo lib q>l0di. O z E0vfsizligi v0 mij>zl0r E0vfsizligini t0 minl0sh uchun b0nk d5p>zitl0rning m0 lum bir b5lgil0ng0n qismni ishg0 s>lm0y turishi l>zim. Bu f>ndl0r b0nk z0hir0l0ri, d5b n>ml0n0di. Z0hir0l0r h0jmi bil0n >m>n0tl0r bo yich0 b5rilg0n m0jburiyatl0r o rt0sid0gi nisb0t m0jburiy z0hir0l0r n>rm0si, d5b 0t0l0di. Bu n>rm0 m0ml0k0tning m0rk0ziy b0nki t>m>nid0n b5lgil0n0di. Must0qillik yill0rid0 O zb5kist>nning b0nk tizimid0 tub o zg0rishl0r 0m0lg0 >shirildi. B0nkl0rning m0bl0g l0ri, f0>liyat d>ir0si v0 >bro -e tib>ri >shdi. K5yingi v0qtl0rd0 bu 0yniqs0 ko rinib q>ldi. g0r 2011 yild0 m0ml0k0timizning 0tigi 13 t0 tij>r0t b0nki ij>biy E0lq0r> r5ytingg0 eg0 bo lg0n bo ls0, 0yni p0ytd0 ul0rning s>ni 26 t0g0 y5tdi, b0nk tizimining likvidligi 65,0% d0n >rtdi, bu es0 t0l0b etil0dig0n minim0l d0r0j0d0n 2 b0r0v0r yuq>ridir. So nggi yillar davomida  Mudis ,  Standart and Purs va  Fitch reytings kabi yetakchi reyting agentliklari O zbekiston bank tizimi faoliyatini  barqaror deb baholamoqdalar. H>zir O zb5kist>nd0 31 t0 b0nk f0>liyat yurityapti. Ul0rd0n 3 t0si d0vl0t, 13 t0si hiss0d>rlik-tij>r0t, 10 t0si Eususiy v0 5 t0si ch5t el k0pit0li ishtir>kid0gi b0nkl0rdir. TAKRORLASH UCHUN SAVOLLAR Siz qanday pullarni bilasiz? Nima uchun muomalaga ma lum miqdordagi pul chiqarilishi lozim? Deflyatsiya nima? Kredit nima uchun zarur? Banklarning iqtisodiyotdagi o rnini izohlang.  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